10 Gigabit Ethernet

Standards connectors are XFP, SFP+ and RJ45.

SFP+

SFP+ is a cage wich receives an optical transceiver or a direct attach copper cable.
SFP+ uses SFI signal interface. This is a 1x lane TX + 1x lane RX differential pair interface

SFP+
Height 8.5 mm (0.33 inches)
Width 13.4 mm (0.53 inches)
Depth 56.5 mm (2.22 inches)

XFP

XFP uses XFI signal interface.
This is a 1x lane TX + 1x lane RX differential pair interface at 10.31 Gigabaud
The primary difference between SFP+ and the slightly older XFP standard is that SFP+ moves the chip for clock and data recovery into a line card on the host device. This makes an SFP+ smaller than an XFP, enabling greater port density.

XFP
Height 8.5 mm (0.33 inches)
Width 18.35 mm (0.72 inches)
Depth 78.0 mm (3.10 inches)

PHY and transceivers

10G PHY usually interfaces with XAUI, RXAUI or XFI interface.

XAUI

This interface can be called also IEEE 802.3ae XGXS interface.
It is composed by four SERDES lines running a 3.125 Ghz in each direction using 8/10 bits coding channel

RXAUI

RXAUI means Reduced XAUI.
It is composed by two SERDES lines running a 6.25 Ghz in each direction.

RJ45

10G Ethernet can be available on standard copper cables.
It requires Cat6a connectors, with integrated magnetics

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